Port Terminal Modernization and Zero Emission Strategies
The Port of Long Beach’s Middle Harbor Container Terminal is the greenest container terminal in the United States and one of the most advanced container terminals in the world. This state-of-the-art terminal uses automation and electrified equipment to achieve an annual cargo handling capacity of 3.3 million TEU; by itself, this terminal would rank as America's sixth-busiest seaport.
The finished wharf can accommodate the largest container ships. Three 14,000 TEU or two 24,000 TEU vessels can be docked simultaneously. The backland, where containers are processed, consists of 36 container storage blocks built flat, and are operated by rail mounted automated stacking cranes (ASC) as well as 72,941 lineal track feet of intermodal rails.
Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) transport cargo between the shore to ship cranes and ASCs. The AGV travel area has very demanding asphalt pavement requirements due to heavy AGV loads and repetitive AGV travel paths.
The design and construction of the terminal took more than a decade.
The focus of this paper is to highlight some of the main challenges and valuable experiences gained during construction of this project. Items such as crane rail testing after construction, crane rail movements over time, challenges of developing and testing asphalt pavement to withstand AGV traffic, settlement of the land immediately behind the wharf over time and associated challenges with constructing new fill wick drainage and surcharge and settlement of surrounding areas, removal of existing underground cyclopean dike wall with drill and blast explosives demolition method, will be discussed in detail